Introduction By Co-Authors

  • Introduction by Ian Austin

    There were three areas of inspiration for me to produce an Encyclopedia about the Mewar Dynasty. The primary one was the subject itself. Already, it had inspired me to storyline a novel, a book of short stories, a book of one-act plays, and the libretto of an opera, all of which are works in progress at the time of writing. In March, 1999, Arvind Singh Mewar ('Shriji' as he is affectionately known by all), who had seen several drafts of some of the work, commissioned me to write Mewar - The World's Longest Serving Dynasty.

    The second inspiration for me to produce this book was that there was not an up-to-date and comprehensive reference book (such as an encyclopedia) readily available in English to authors for research purposes. My research for the above-mentioned book and works-in-progress was exhaustive but, from the outset, what I wanted on my bookshelf was a reliable aid within immediate reach that focussed on the people, places and events of the Dynasty. For a writer seeking veracity, lack of correct data can be as much a danger as an abundance of incorrect details.

    The third inspiration was obvious: that old adage, "If you want something done, do it yourself". And so, in the final days of the 20th Century, the idea of The Mewar Encyclopedia was born, to assist future researchers and writers on Mewar (and there will be many, as the subject has almost limitless possibilities for literary exploration), also to help scholars, and even tourist visitors to Udaipur. Thankfully, Shriji liked the idea and assigned the erudite head of the Maharana Mewar Research Institute, Thakur Nahar Singh of Jasol, and his staff to assist me with verification of subject matter.

    Thus I embarked on the rather formidable task of finding the facts, and assembling them in this encyclopedia, primarily as a publication, and also for the Internet. Its many hundreds of entries are what I consider to be the Dynasty's most important people, places and events.

    Contents. The Encyclopedia covers the major personalities, places and events in Mewar’s long history, with a nod to some of the interesting legends, and minor aspects as well.

    Spelling. One problem area of assembling and editing an encyclopaedia, or any book based on history, is the variation in the spelling of a person's name, a place, or an event, and so on, which can and often does vary from place to place, and even within differently-sourced reference books. It can lead to confusion and frustration and even the perpetuation of an error (cross-checking a reference is fraught with danger as many spellings may be, themselves, no more than repetitions of an earlier error). Unfortunately, the problem is virtually insurmountable, therefore I decided an standardised Encyclopedia was necessary, if not for myself now, then for future writers. Wherever I have discovered one or more spelling variations I have given what is considered by experts in this field to be the correct or most popularly accepted version as the entry heading, followed by the variation/s in parenthesis. Additionally, I have noted that a sometimes-seen version, such as might appear in a tourist guide book. All spellings receive an entry heading with a cross-reference (See so-and-so) to the more acceptable spelling.

    Links. A word or words, either a name, place or event that appears in smaller CAPITALS means that it has its own entry.

    "Foreign" words. I have decided not to show these words or phrases in the traditional form of italics for a good reason: Many of the Hindi or Persian words included here are in common usage throughout India, particularly proper nouns, so how does one decide what to italicise? I think you will find my breaking with literary tradition does not lead to confusion.

    Titles. As in all encyclopaedia, an entry about a particular person begins with his surname (or family name) for easy reference purposes—i.e., Tod, Captain James or, with a titled person, his given name, then a comma followed by the title—i.e., Dulha, Kunwar. However, it is interesting to note that, normally, with the title "Kunwar" (a younger son of a ruler, not the Crown Prince and heir), Kunwar Dulha would be his actual title and name, yet if written without the comma—i.e., Dulha Kunwar—it would indicate that the person was the daughter of a ruler (also shown as Kunwari).

    The Concise History of Mewar. As I have found in carrying out research for other projects, an alphabetical inventory is limited in relation to an overall picture if there is no accompanying chronological perspective. Therefore, I have also included a thumbnail table, The Concise History of Mewar., which provides this essential perspective.

    Dates. Unless otherwise indicated, the dates in parentheses, e.g., (1537-1572) or (r. 1537-1572) are the years of a ruler's reign. As the time of the Mewar Dynasty began within the last millennium, generally I have not preceded years with AD, but have used this only if there might be a chance of ambiguity.

    Please note that there are no entries for the letters Q and X.

    I am greatly indebted to Shriji Arvind Singh Mewar of Udaipur, whom I first met on a terrace at the Rambagh Palace Hotel in Jaipur one afternoon in 1982. The occasion was an interview I used for an episode of Hidden India, a 6-hour international television documentary series that I was writing and directing on location. At the time Shriji was not even the Baji Rao (Crown Prince) of the Mewar family; that title belonged to his elder brother, Mahendra Singh (but that's another story, well-covered in the first Mewar book and in this Encyclopedia). Arvind Singh was the younger brother, a Maharaj Kumar (or Kunwar), the general title of all sons of a Mewar king. Because of his total commitment to preserving and promoting the heritage of Mewar, the advent of his becoming the head of the dynasty was, I am sure, pre-ordained.

    I am also indebted to my co-author and co-editor, Thakur Nahar Singh Jasol, Administrator of the City Palace Museum, Udaipur and Director of the Maharana Mewar Research Institute, and his tireless staff, for the wonderful backup they provided in helping me to translate, compile, edit and write this book.

    I hope it will be of value to others seeking facts and figures about the erstwhile Mewar Dynasty, and that it may be an inspiration, providing ideas for creative output in the future. 

  • Introduction by Thakur Nahar Singh Jasol

    • The royal House of Mewar (Udaipur) claims descent from Lov, elder son of Lord Rama, King of Ayodhya, and protagonist of the epic Ramayana. Bappa Rawal received the kingdom of Mewar in trust from the holy sage, Harit Rashi, to hold, defend and govern as vassal on earth of the Lord Eklingji. This the House of Mewar has continued to do in unbroken line of succession to the present, governing and defending the land as agents of the Lord, bestowing upon the task of governance the noblest ideals of trusteeship, and defending the kingdom with unflinching and unparalleled courage and fortitude. They yielded to none, howsoever powerful. Even into the present, the House of Mewar continues to be acknowledged as the epitome of Rajput pride, chivalry, fortitude and courage.

      So illustrious indeed was the conduct of this royal house that it drew the bravest and best from other Rajput kingdoms and clans to its ideals and service. One such was the Rathore, Rao Kalla, who left his native Mehavo in the Mallani tract and joined Mewar under the then Maharana, Udai Singh II. He served him with distinction, eventually laying down his life in the duty of his adopted state at Chittor, along with Jaimal Rathore. A cenotaph still stands at Chittor, bearing witness to Kalla’s bravery and sacrifice.

      In coming to a full circle of the Wheel of Destiny, a descendant of Kalla, namely I, now serves the House of Mewar. In what is a distinct honour and privilege, Shriji (Arvind Singh Mewar) sought me out in my retirement from service to the House of Jodhpur, where I served several years as Director of the Mehrangarh Fort Museum, and offered me the position of Chief Administrator of the City Palace Museum at Udaipur. It was an honour I could not have refused, and it is in that capacity that I was drawn into the Maharana Mewar Charitable Foundation’s exciting project led by the Australian writer, Ian Austin, involving the production of a definitive Encyclopedia of Mewar.

      I was able to give input that only someone with local cultural moorings could have contributed. My contribution has been to edit the entire manuscript, correcting and amplifying wherever required through the entire text. I assisted Ian in understanding local terminology, correcting all proper names, which have a variety of spellings in many other texts, and fleshed out various entries to include clans and genealogies.

      My own effort required considerable desk research and I am grateful in this regard to my colleague, P.C. Bhargava, and the Library staff. I am grateful also to my mother for her blessings and to my brothers for their encouragement and support. I am also grateful to my esteemed friend, Dr. Naval Krishna who always encouraged me to write. Last but not least, I acknowledge my gratitude to Shriji and Ian Austin for agreeing to let me share honours as co-author and co-editor of this milestone contribution to the rich body of literature on the illustrious House of Mewar.

      I am quite sure in my mind that this book will help future curious minds into further research in terms of words, places, people and events. Here is a catalogue, quite honestly researched, of what is past, passing, or to come.

      In dedication : to the greatest of the great, none else but the protagonist, Maharana Pratap, his steed Chetak, to Chittorgarh, and to all those unsung heroes who laid down their lives for this land and for liberty.

      Thakur Nahar Singh Jasol 
      Udaipur, February 2001

      Updated by
      Thakur Bhupendra Singh Auwa
      Udaipur, December 2014

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the following for their invaluable assistance with this book: Satyajit Padhi, Shri P.C. Bhargava, Dr. B.M. Javalia, and Shri Laxmi Shanker Purohit.

Preface

  • Mewar is, quite rightly, called the world’s longest serving Dynasty. Historically, this Rajput realm came into being in the 7th century with Rawal Guhil; in mythology, it traces its descent from Ram, king of Ayodhya, one of the heroes of the epic Ramayan. Bappa Rawal established the House of Mewar itself in AD 734. The name of the ruling family from the outset was Guhilot (after Guhil). This unofficially became Aharya, when the Mewar capital was the ancient city of Ahar during the 10th to 12th centuries. In 1326, with Maharana Hamir Singh I, the family’s name was changed to Sisodia, and remains so to this day. Proudly, they are Suryvanshis, descendants of Surya the Sun God.

  • Perhaps that simple, brief introduction neatly answers the question “What was Mewar?” However, and understandably, in 1,400 years, there is so much more to know about this amazing Dynasty. For instance, for most of those fourteen centuries, Mewar was recognised as the leading kingdom of Rajputana (Land of the Rajputs). Although roughly the size of modern Switzerland, the extent of the State has varied from time to time. Up to the reign of Maharana Sangram Singh I (1509-1527) its boundaries were far-reaching for such a small kingdom (albeit the largest in Rajputana). Due to the repeated assaults of the Mughals and the Marathas, those dimensions were narrowed, then somewhat re-established in 1818 with the advent of the treaty with the British Govt.

  • The foremost feature of the kingdom was its isolation, which made its people self-reliant, warlike (in defence, not in annexation) and straightforward. Set amongst the Aravalli ranges, Mewar was a geographically secluded territory, the rugged terrain a distinctive physical feature that helped to shape the State’s history. Ancient Indian culture and art found an asylum in the territory and enriched the kingdom’s own superb heritage. Mewar has enjoyed the best of times, yet its history is rife with conflict. Among its rulers were a fair share of villains, as well as exemplary heroes, the names of the latter still household words toda

  • Mewar had a pattern of feudal administration that bound the king, the nobles and the people in a unique covenant, uniting them without distinction of caste, creed or religion as one family, even in times of war. Throughout its long history, the kingdom gained an admirable record of solid independence, and its place of honour at the head of the Rajput clans was well deserved. Alone among the Hindu princes, Mewar's rulers refused to succumb to the ‘foreign invasion’ of the Delhi Sultanates, the Mughal Empire, and the Marathas. Nor did they intermarry with any other than Rajputs. However, Mewar's independence (as did that of all other Princely States) was lost with Indian Independence in 1948, when all Princely States were incorporated into the new Indian Union, losing both their titles and income. In 1949, with the redistribution of India's state borders, Mewar was incorporated into the new state of Rajasthan.

  • Despite this blow to its heritage and traditional lifestyle, Mewar retained its identity as such through the formation of various foundations. These now protect and promote not only the name ‘Maharana’, but also Mewar's historical and cultural heritage. Because of Mewar's stoical adherence to tradition, India has always held the kingdom in high respect, calling it the Sun of the Hindus. For centuries, it was a source of inspiration, and the Rajputs of Mewar will ever be synonymous with chivalry and patriotism. Because of this heritage, and of its bravery and dedication to the welfare of its people, Mewar was called the Sun of the Hindus, and its history is outstanding in the annals of India.

Biography

  • Bibliography

    ​​​​​​​For the invitees: An exclusive opportunity to once again connects to Mewar in the 21st century and to support its value-system that upholds welfare of all humanity.

    Abode of Kings, The House of Mewar

    Chief and Leading Families of Udaipur, Sup. of Govt. Press, Calcutta, 1903

    Guide Map of Udaipur, 1934-35

    Maharana Mewar Foundation, Scheme of Awards, The House of Mewar, 1997

    Memoranda on the Indian States 1938, Govt, of India, 1938

    Raj Prashasthi, Sang 8 Shlok 51-52.

    Road Map of Udaipur

    Who’s Who in India, Burma and Ceylon, 1939, Sun Publishing House, Bombay

     

    Acharya, G.S., Visit Chittaur, Shiva Prakashan, Bikaner, 1980

    Archana Shankar, Udaipur, The Fabled City of Romance, Lustre Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1997

    Arya, R.P. & Arya, Jitender, Rajasthan Road Atlas, Govt. of India, 1997

    Austin, Ian, Mewar-The World’s Longest Serving Dynasty, Roli Books, Delhi/The House of Mewar, 1999

    Davenport, Hugh, The Trials and Triumphs of the Mewar Kingdom, Maharana Mewar Charitable Foundation, Udaipur

    Das, Shayamal, Veer Vinod.

    Daulat Singh Rajawat, Udaipur, Delta Publications, Jaipur

    Erskine, K.D., Rajputana Gazetteers, Western Rajput States and Mewar Residency, Vintage Books, 1908

    Goyal, Suresh, Chittorgarh, ‘The Land of Chivalry & Heroism’, Goyal Brothers, Surajpole, Udaipur

    Goswami, C.G. and M.N. Mathur, Mewar and Udaipur, Himnashu Publicaitons, Udaipur-New Delhi

    Heinemann, S.O., Poems of Mewar, Vipin Jain, for Vintage Books, Haryana.

    Kulke, Hermann, and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, Barnes& Noble, 1986

    Mackenzie, Donald A., India, Myths and Legends, Studio Editions, London, 1994

    Mansukhani, Raju, His Highness Mr Chairman (article), Expression India Magazine, Media Transasia Ltd., New Delhi, February 1999

    Masters, Brian, Maharana, The Story of the Rulers of Udaipur, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad, 1990

    Ozha, Rao Bahadur Gauri Shankar, History of Udaipur, Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, 1928 (republished) 1994.

    Sethi, V.K., Mira, The Divine Lover, Radha Soami Satsang Beas, Punjab, 1988

    Shankar, Archana, Udaipur, The Fabled City of Romance, Lustre Press/Roli Books Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1997

    Sharma, Dr. G.N., Haqiqat Bahida-I, H.H. Maharana Fateh Singhji, Maharana Mewar Research Institute, Udaipur

    Shayamal Das, Veer Vinod

    Singh, Kesri, Haldighati, Symbol of the Spirit of Independence, Galaxy Publicities Pvt. Ltd., Jaipur, 1976

    Singh, Kesri, The Hero of Haldighati, Books Treasure, Jodhpur

    Suresh Goyal, The Invincible Maharana Pratap, Goyal Brothers, Udaipur, c.1983.

    Tod, Lieut.-Col. James, edited by William Crooke, C.I.E., Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, 3 volumes, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, reprint 1994

    Yogesh Joshi, Dr. (Editor), Maharana Pratap, the Great Son of Mewar, Kiran Soni Gupta, President, Maharana Pratap Smriti Sansthan, Haldighati

The Concise History of Mewar

  • Concise History of Mewar

    A chronology of Mewar's 76 Rulers and their times (569-2001 CE) including some parallel events in India.

    Conflicting dates exist for the reigns of Guhil and his two immediate successors, Bhoj and Mahendra I. Some texts maintain Guhil's reign began as early as 566 CE. The following dates must still be considered approximate.

    1. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal GUHIL

    Reign:
    569-603 CE

    Capital:
    Idar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Posthumous son of Siladitya VI, Rajput king of Vallabhi (in Saurashtra, now Gujarat) born to Queen Pushpavati after Vallabhi destroyed by Arab invaders and the king killed. Guhil grows up among Bhil tribesmen of Idar district; adopted by chief, Mandalik. When chief dies, Guhil learns he is really a Rajput prince. 569, makes Idar his capital and establishes Guhilot dynasty, precursor of the Mewar dynasty. Little known of his reign.

    India:
    Chalukyas of Badami in Central India; Pallavas of Kanchipuram in South India. 595, first record of decimal notation. 598, astronomer and mathematician, Brahmagupta.
    2. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal BHOJ

    Reign:
    603-615 CE

    Capital:
    Bhomat district, Idar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.

    India:
    600-630, Pallavas under Mahendravarman I. 606-647, Harshavardhana king of Kanauj. 608-642 CE, Chalukyas under Pulakesin II. 615 CE, revival of Indian architecture and sculpture; stone replaces earlier timber and brick. 630 CE, Pulakesin defeats Harsha. 630-643, Hsuan Tsang in India.
    3. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal MAHENDRA I

    Reign:
    615-625 CE

    Capital:
    Idar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign except that rebel Bhils kill him and reclaim their territory of Idar.

    India:
    625 CE, Brahmagupta at Ujjain. 642, Pallava king Narasimhavarman defeats Pulakesin II.
    4. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal NAGADITYA (NAG)

    Reign:
    626-646

    Capital:
    Nagda

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Moves capital to Nagadhara; renames it Nagda after himself.

    India:
    628, Brahmagupta writes important mathematical work, Brahma Siddhanta. 630, Chinese traveller Hsuan-tsang visits Kanauj. 637, Arabs pillage Tana, near Bombay. 680-720, zenith of Pallava kingdom under Narasimhavarman II.
    5. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal SHILADITYA

    Reign:
    646-661

    Capital:
    Nagda

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.

    India:
    661, Arab traders and settlers in Gujarat, Bombay and Deccan.
    6. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal APARAJIT

    Reign:
    661-688

    Capital:
    Nagda

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little is known of his reign.

    India:
    675 CE, Shore temples at Mamallapuram built by Pallava ruler Narasimharvarman.
    7. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal MAHENDRA II

    Reign:
    688-716

    Capital:
    Nagda

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign. 725, Arab force attacks Chittor, then ruled by Paramara Rajputs from Malwa.

    India:
    c.700, Hinduism drives Buddhism out of India; spreads to Nepal and Tibet. King of Madurai impales 8,000 Jains in a single day. 712, Islam force conquers Sind; Arab governor rules on behalf of Caliph; raids from Sind devastate Gujarat.
    8. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal KALBHOJ (BAPPA RAWAL) Founded the Mewar Dynasty

    Reign:
    734-753

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    716, only 3 years old when Mahendra II dies; raised by Brahman priest, spends childhood in religious retreat in Nagda foothills where Eklingji worshipped. Harit Rashi teaches him to recognise Eklingji as supreme Lord of Mewar; gives Kalbhoj special blessing, predicting he will rule Mewar as Eklingji’s Diwan; gives specific code of conduct for him and successors. 734, Kalbhoj aged 21 learns his true identity, mounts an army and takes Chittor from Maun Mori, founds Mewar Dynasty. Given name of Bappa Rawal. Builds temple to Eklingji. Successful campaigns against invaders of Islam drive them back beyond western borders of Rajputana. Mewar becomes symbol of Rajput resistance and leading kingdom in Rajputana.

    India:
    725 CE, great period of building under Rajput rule. 736, Tomara Rajputs found Dhillika (1st city of Delhi). 740, Chalukyas defeat Pallavas. 746, Gujara clan, the Chapas, found Andapura, principal city of west India till 1400s. 750 CE, Pala dynasty founded in eastern India by Gopala; earliest records of existence of Tamil language; Shore temples at Mamallapuram completed. 752, Dantidurga overthrows Chalukyas, establishes Rashtrakuta dynasty.
    9. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal KHUMAN I

    Reign:
    753 - 773

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Khuman I continues father’s resistance of ongoing Muslim incursions, as do following three successors. (It is recorded that an invader, King Kikteshwar conquers Chittor, but it is retaken in 755.)

    India:
    757 CE, Rashtrakutas defeat Chalukyas. 760 CE, rock-cut Kailasa Temple at Ellora begun by Krishnaraja I. 770-821, Gopala establishes Pala dynasty of Bihar and Bengal.
    10. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal MATTAT

    Reign:
    773-793

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little is known of his reign.

    India:
    Vatsaraja establishes Gurjara Pratihara dynasty of Rajasthan.
  • Concise History of Mewar

    A chronology of Mewar's 76 Rulers and their times (AD ca 569-2001) including some parallel events in India.

    Conflicting dates exist for the reigns of Guhil and his two immediate successors, Bhoj and Mahendra I. Some texts maintain Guhil's reign began as early as 566 AD. The following dates must still be considered approximate.

    11. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal BHERT PATT I (Bhartri Batt)

    Reign:
    793-813

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little is known of his reign.

    India:
    794, Govinda II of (Western) Rashtrakutas (Ellora) seizes Malwa and Chittor from Gujaras. c.800, Paramaras make Mandu in Malwa their capital; Philosopher Shankaracharya.
    12. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal SINHA

    Reign:
    813-828

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little is known of his reign.

    India:
    Palas dominate Eastern India. 814-880, Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsa.
    13. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal KHUMAN II

    Reign:
    828-853

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    (‘Mighty Warrior’) repels Muslim force that attacks Chittor; in all, fights 24 battles against the invaders. His reign often called Golden Age Of Rajputana. Mewar called guardian of Hinduism.

    India:
    831, Chandella dynasty of Bundelkhand (Khajuraho) founded; builds Khajuraho temples. 836-85, Gurjara Pratiharas become India's most powerful dynasty under Bhoja. 850 CE, Buddhism completely disappears in Northern India; replaced by Jainism and Hinduism.
    14. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal MAHAYAK

    Reign:
    853-878

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign. Next seven generations of Mewar rulers repulse intermittent foreign invasions and attacks by fellow Rajput chiefs eager to expand own realms.

    India:
    871-907, Aditya I overthrows Pallavas, establishes Chola dynasty in South India.
    15. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal KHUMAN III

    Reign:
    878-942

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.

    India:
    900 CE, Cholas of Tanjore assert control in South India. 907 CE, Parantanka, Chola dynasty.
    16. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal BHERT PATT II (Bhartri Batt)

    Reign:
    942-943

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his rule.

    India:
    939-68, Rashtrakutas become powerful dynasty under Krishna III; defeat of Cholas.
    17. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal ALLAT

    Reign:
    951-953

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Possibly near start of reign, Allat driven from Chittor by Paramara king of Malwa, Munja Raja who rules Chittor followed by nephew Raja Bhoj. Allat establishes new capital at ancient Ahar. 953, death of Allat. (No successor for 8 years while Paramaras attack Ahar. 961, Paramara king Vakpati Raj of Malwa rules Chittor.)
    18. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal NARWAHAN

    Reign:
    971-973

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.
    19. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal SHALIWAHAN

    Reign:
    973-977

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.

    India:
    973, Taila overthrows Rashtrakutas, establishes Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani. 973 CE, revival of Deccan building and sculpture. 985, Rajaraja I establishes Chola power, conquers South India and Ceylon. 988, resurgence of Palas of Bihar and Bengal.
    20. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal SHAKTI KUMAR

    Reign:
    977-993

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.

    India:
    980 CE. Monolith of Gomateswara (3.7 m high) carved at Sravana Belagola. 985, Rajaraja extends Chola power. 986, Sabuktigin of Ghazni invades India; opposed by Jaipul ruler of Kangra. 993, founding of actual city named Delhi.
  • Concise History of Mewar

    A chronology of Mewar's 76 Rulers and their times (AD ca 569-2001) including some parallel events in India.

    Conflicting dates exist for the reigns of Guhil and his two immediate successors, Bhoj and Mahendra I. Some texts maintain Guhil's reign began as early as 566 AD. The following dates must still be considered approximate.

    21. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal AMBA PRASAD

    Reign:
    993-1007

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Fights alongside fellow Rajputs against Mahmud of Ghazni.

    India:
    997, Mahmud of Ghazni (Afghanistan) begins series of raids into India. 998, annexes Punjab and Arab Sind. 1000-27, Mahmud raids North India in 17 "expeditions". (For next two centuries, often outclassed, Rajputs, including Guhilots of Mewar, continue opposition to Muslims.)
    22. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal SHUCHI VERMA

    Reign:
    1007-1021

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little is known of his reign.

    India:
    1008, Mahmud of Ghazni defeats confederacy of Rajput rulers. 1014, Rajendra Chola. 1018, Mahmud of Ghazni pillages sacred city of Mathura. 1020, Mahmud conquers Kanauj, Lahore, Gwalior and Kalinjar.
    23. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal NAR VERMA

    Reign:
    1021-1035

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little is known of his reign.

    India:
    1022-23, northern campaign of Rajendra Chola; defeats Somavamshahs of Orissa and Palas of Bengal. 1024-25, Mahmud conquers Gujarat; sacks Somnath. 1025, Chola maritime expedition conquers Srivijaya (Sumatra and Malaya). 1030, Alberuni in India.
    24. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal KEERTI VERMA

    Reign:
    1035-1051

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.

    India:
    1050 CE, Philosopher Ramanuja.
    25. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal YOGRAJ (YUVRAJ)

    Reign:
    1051-1068

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.
    26. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal BAIRATH (VAIRATH)

    Reign:
    1068-1088

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.

    India:
    1070-1120, Kulottunga of Vengi ascends Chola throne. 1077, Embassy of Chola merchants to China. 1077-1120, Ramapala, last important Pala king, reconquers parts of Bengal. 1077-1147, Anantavarman Chodaganga of Kalinga conquers central Orissa, establishes Ganga empire.
    27. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal HANSPAL

    Reign:
    1088-1103

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.

    India:
    1100, Krishnamisra writes Prabodha-Chanrodaya, allegorical play on Vishnu.
    28. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal VAIRSINGH

    Reign:
    1103-1107

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.
    29. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal VIJAI SINGH

    Reign:
    1107-1127

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.

    India:
    1110, rise of Vishnuvardhana and Hoysala power. 1127, earliest dated Jain manuscript, made of palm leaf.
    30. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal ARI SINGH I

    Reign:
    1127-1138

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign. Chittor occupied by Malwa.

    India:
    1136, Solanki Jaya Singh of Gujarat defeats Yashovarma of Malwa; takes Chittor from him.Little known of his reign.
  • Concise History of Mewar

    A chronology of Mewar's 76 Rulers and their times (AD ca 569-2001) including some parallel events in India.

    Conflicting dates exist for the reigns of Guhil and his two immediate successors, Bhoj and Mahendra I. Some texts maintain Guhil's reign began as early as 566 AD. The following dates must still be considered approximate.

    31. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal CHAUD SINGH

    Reign:
    1138-1148

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign. 1143, Chalukyas attack Paramaras, still holding Chittor.
    32. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal VIKRAMADITYA I (Vikram Singh)

    Reign:
    1148-1158

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little is known of his reign.

    India:
    1150 CE, mathematical work, Lilavata, standard for many years in the East.
    33. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal RAN SINGH

    Reign:
    1158-1168

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Family split, possibly near end of reign: son Rahap establishes Sisodia branch of family; son Mahap establishes Dungarpur kingdom.

    India:
    1162, Mohammad Ghuri, a Turk from Ghur in Afghanistan uses Muslim-controlled Punjab as base in campaign to conquer all India.
    34. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal KSHEM SINGH

    Reign:
    1168-1172

    Capital:
    Ahar

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.
    35. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal SAMANT SINGH

    Reign:
    1172-1179

    Capital:
    Ahar, Dungarpur

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    1175, occupies Bagar (Dungarpur area). Slain by Kirtipal Solanki of Nadol in battle at Ghaggar (Punjab).
    36. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal KUMAR SINGH

    Reign:
    1179-1191

    Capital:
    Dungarpur (Nagda)

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Possibly relocated capital to Nagda at end of his reign.

    India:
    1179, Lakshmama Sena, last Hindu king of Bengal. Muslims under Mahommed of Ghur renew conquest of North India; defeated by Kurukshetra outside Delhi.
    37. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal MATHAN SINGH

    Reign:
    1191-1211

    Capital:
    Dungarpur (Nagda)

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Possibly relocated capital to Nagda at start of reign. 1191-2, Battles of Tarain, Chauhan ruler Prithviraj III and Rajput confederation incl. Mewar (The Hindu League) defeated by Mohammed Ghuri. c.1200, Tower of Fame, Chittor. 1207, Chittor ruled by Chalyukas.

    India:
    1193, Muslims capture Bihar and Bengal, 1196-97, Gwalior, Gujarat and Anhilwara. 1203, Ghuri completes conquest of North India; leaves commander Aibak as Viceroy. 1206, Ghuri assassinated; Aibak founds 1st Delhi Sultanate, the Slave Dynasty, beginning seven centuries of foreign domination in India; Indian culture gains Islamic influence. 1210, Slave Dynasty, Aram Shah.
    38. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal PADAM SINGH

    Reign:
    1211-1213

    Capital:
    Nagda

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.

    India:
    1211, Sultan Aibak repels invasions into North India by Mongol Chenghiz Khan. 1211, Slave Dynasty, Iltutmish.
    39. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal JAITRA SINGH

    Reign:
    1213-1253

    Capital:
    Nagda, Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Chittor becomes Mewar capital again. Jaitra Singh defeats Malwa Rajputs ruling Chittor, reinstates fort as Mewar capital. 1234, defeats Sultan Iltutmish when he invades south.

    India:
    1221, Mongol Chenghiz Khan again invades Delhi. 1236, Iltutmish completes building of Qutub Minar, Delhi. 1236, Slave Dynasty, Firoz Shah I. 1236, Slave Dynasty, Iltutmish’s daughter, Raziyya Sultana. 1237, Gujarati manuscript painting on palm-leaf. 1240, Slave Dynasty, Bahram Shah; 1242, Masud; 1246, Mahmud Shah I. 1246, Rajendra II last Chola king. c.1250, Sun Temple, Konarak. 1253, resurgence of Pandyas of Madurai.Little known of his reign.
    40. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal TEJ SINGH

    Reign:
    1261-1267

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Little known of his reign.

    India:
    1266, Slave Dynasty, Balban (Ghiyas-ud-Din).
  • Concise History of Mewar

    A chronology of Mewar's 76 Rulers and their times (AD ca 569-2001) including some parallel events in India.

    Conflicting dates exist for the reigns of Guhil and his two immediate successors, Bhoj and Mahendra I. Some texts maintain Guhil's reign began as early as 566 AD. The following dates must still be considered approximate.

    41. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal SAMAR SINGH

    Reign:
    1273-1302

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    Builds wall around Mahasati, Chittor. Son Kumbh Karan migrates to Nepal (later generation becomes Nepalese royal family). 1291, Hamir Singh born to Rana Laksha Singh of Sisoda.

    India:
    1287, Slave Dynasty, Muizz-ud-Din Kubad (final). 1288 (and 1293), Marco Polo visits South India. 1290, Khilji Dynasty, Delhi, Firoz Shah II; 1296, Ibrahim Shah I, succeeded in same year by Allaudin (Mahmud Shah I), Firoz Shah’s ambitious nephew and military commander; radical reform measures. (1296-1306, Delhi sultanate repulses several attacks by Mongols.) 1297, Allaudin conquers Gujarat in ongoing campaign to subjugate all Rajputana. 1299, first attack on Chittor by Allaudin. 1300-1301, Allaudin annexes Ranthambhor then set sights on Chittor.
    42. Ruler & Title:
    Rawal RATAN SINGH I

    Reign:
    1302-1303

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Guhilot
    Mewar:
    1303, Jan, 1st Siege Of Chittor by Allaudin. (Legend: Allaudin foiled in attempt to add Ratan’s wife, Rani Padmini to harem.) Rana Laksha of Sisoda branch sends his son Ajai and family, with grandson Hamir (aged 12) to safety in Kelwara. Chittor falls to Allaudin (Aug 25); Ratan Singh killed along with thousands of Mewar warriors; fort’s women commit jauhar. Sultan appoints son Khijr Khan Governor of Mewar. Remnants of Mewar Rajputs join Ajai in Kelwara; start attacking imperial strongholds. 1314, Allaudin replaces son with Rajput vassal Maldeo at Chittor. Ajai killed in battle; nobles proclaim teenage Hamir new Maharana.

    India:
    1302-1311, Malik Kafur's campaigns in south India. 1304, Allaudin repulses second Mongol invasion; 1305, conquers Malwa; 1306, conquers Devagiri (Daulatabad); 1307-11, conquers Hindu kingdoms in South India. 1316, Khilji Dynasty, Omar; 1316, Mubarak Shah I; 1320, Nasir-ud-Din (Khusru Shah) (final). 1320, Tughluq Dynasty, Ghiyas-ud-Din (Tughluq Shah I); 1325, Muhammad II.
    43. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana HAMIR SINGH I (First to use the title Maharana)

    Reign:
    1326-1364

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Hamir leaves exile at Kelwara, retakes Chittor; changes ruling family name from Guhilot to Sisodia and title from Rawal to Rana (Maharana). Embarks on campaign of recapturing Mewar provinces. An inspiring reign (often called the first liberator of India).

    India:
    1327, Muhammad Tughluq temporarily moves capital from Delhi to Devagiri; renames it Daulatabad. 1332, possible start of Black Death (bubonic plague) believed to have originated in India. 1336, Vijayanagara kingdom founded in South India. 1338, separate sultanate of Bengal. 1347, Bahman Shah founds Bhamani kingdom in Central India by. 1351, Tughluqs, Firoz Shah, last important sultan of Delhi. 1361, Firoz Shah raids Orissa
    44. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana KSHETRA SINGH

    Reign:
    1366-1382

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Continued his father’s work in retaking Mewar provinces from the Tughluqs. 1364 CE, occupies Ajmer. 1382, Assassinated by Hara chief of Banbaoda in dispute about a daughter he is to marry. India: 1370, Vijayanagara conquers sultanate of Madurai.
    45. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana LAKHA

    Reign:
    1382-1421

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1382, establishes town of Badnore (Mertia Rathor clan). Builds Banjara Dam on Lake Pichola. 1383, retakes Mewar’s border provinces; develops mining of minerals (especially zinc) at Zawara, south of modern Udaipur; becomes patron of the arts; creates many essential lakes and reservoirs, rebuilds temples and palaces destroyed by Allaudin Khilji. 1398, a falling out with heir, Prince Chunda over Marwar princess whom Lakha himself marries. Chunda renounces right to throne. Later, Lakha appoints Chunda as Regent of young stepbrother, Mokal, son of the princess Chunda spurned. 1421, Lakha joins Rajput forces to oust Muslims from holy northern city of Gaya; killed in battle.

    India:
    1388, Tughluqs, Tughluq Shah II followed same year by Abu-Bakr; 1389, Muhammad Shah III; 1394, Sikander Shah I, then Mahmud Shah II; 1395, Nasrat Shah. 1398, Timur destroys Delhi. 1403, separate sultanate of Gujarat. 1406-22, Devaraja II of Vijayanagara conquers east coast. 1412, Tughluqs, Daulat Khan Lodi (final). 1414, Sayyid Dynasty, Delhi, Khizr Khan.
    46. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana MOKAL

    Reign:
    1421-1433

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Ascends throne aged 5. Later, his mother, Rajmata Hansabai deposes Chunda as Regent; he retires to Mandu, capital of Malwa. Rao Ranmal of Marwar and other relatives of Hansabai move into Chittor in political takeover attempt. 1433, killed by father’s stepbrothers, Chacha and Mera.

    India:
    1421, Sayyids, Muiz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah; 1434, Muhammad Shah IV.
    47. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana KUMBHA

    Reign:
    1433-1468

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Also a minor, ascends throne after father’s murder. Rao Ranmal kills Mokal’s assassins. In a move to take over Mewar throne, he murders Chunda’s brother, Raghudeo. Rajmata asks Chunda to return. He drives out invaders then forms Chundawat clan at Salumbar. Khumba becomes renowned warrior, builder, writer and patron of the arts. 1437, defeats combined armies of Gujarat and Malwa. 1439, occupies Mandore and Sadri. 1449, builds Khumb Shyam Temple, Chittor; helps to finance building of Ranakpur temples. 1452, erects Victory Tower to celebrate victory over Malwa and Gujarat. 1453, Jan 25, lays foundation of Fort Achalgarh at Mt. Abu. 1456, occupies Nagpur after defeating Gujarat army. 1458, Qutub-din of Gujarat attacks Chittor-defeated. 1458, builds Kumbhalgarh. A Charan predicts Kumbha’s imminent death; he banishes Charan tribes from Mewar; Prince Raimal supports Charans; he is exiled to Idar. 1468, Raimal’s elder brother, Udai (Uda) assassinates Kumbha and usurps throne.

    India:
    1440-1518, Kabir, a leader of Bhakti movement. 1443, Sayyids, Alam Shah (final). 1451, Lodi Dynasty, Delhi, Buhlol.
    48. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana UDAI (UDA) SINGH I

    Reign:
    1468-1473

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Illegitimate reign lasts five years (nicknamed Hatyara, ‘The Murderer’). Crown Prince Raimal comes out of exile, mounts an army, attacks Chittor, and claims the throne that is rightly his. Udai Singh flees to Delhi to get help from Sultan Buhlol Lodi; killed there by lightning strike (1473).

    India:
    1469-1539, Nanak of the Bhakti movement.
    49. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana RAIMAL

    Reign:
    1473-1509

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1475, Sultan Ghiyas-ud-Din of Mandu attacks Chittor-defeated. 1482, Sangram Singh (Sanga) born. 1504, bitter family feud between Raimal's three sons: Crown Prince Prithvi Raj, Sanga, and Jaimal. Sanga goes into self-exile near Ajmer; Prithvi Raj banished to Kumbhalgarh. Prithvi Raj and Jaimal killed. Sanga returns from self-exile and succeeds Raimal.

    India:
    c.1480, founding of Merta (later birthplace of poetess Mira Bai). 1482, birth of Babur, Central Asia. 1485, Chaitanya of the Bhakti movement. 1488, Lodis, Sikander II; destroys Mathura shrines; makes Agra his capital. 1498, Portugal's Vasco da Gama arrives in Calicut. 1505-92, zenith of Vijayanagara power under Krishnadeva Raya.
    50. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana SANGRAM SINGH I (SANGA)

    Reign:
    1509-1527

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Lodis of Delhi begin long series of raids to annex Rajputana; Maharana Sanga leads Rajput defence forces, with 18 victories against Muslims. Sires four sons: Crown Prince Bhojraj, Ratan Singh, Vikramaditya, and Udai Singh, three of whom will rule Mewar. 1516, Bhojraj marries Princess Mira Bai of Merta. Within a decade of his ascending throne, Sanga controls, either directly or indirectly, greater part of Rajputana; Mewar reaches height of prosperity. 1521, death of Bhojraj in battle; Mira Bai creates scandal by refusing to commit sati on husband’s funeral pyre; continues writing poetry. 1522, Aug 4, birth of Sanga's youngest son Udai Singh. 1527, Sanga leads Rajputs to drive new Delhi monarch, Babur of the Mughal dynasty from India. Mar 15, they meet at the Battle of Khanwaha. Sanga retires, badly wounded; dies of battle wounds.

    India:
    1510, Portuguese conquer Goa. 1517, Lodis, Ibrahim II (final). 1526, Babur invades India; 1st battle of Panipat, defeats Lodis, establishes Mughal dynasty. 1527, wins Battle of Khanwaha.
  • Concise History of Mewar

    A chronology of Mewar's 76 Rulers and their times (AD ca 569-2001) including some parallel events in India.

    Conflicting dates exist for the reigns of Guhil and his two immediate successors, Bhoj and Mahendra I. Some texts maintain Guhil's reign began as early as 566 AD. The following dates must still be considered approximate.

    51. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana RATAN SINGH II

    Reign:
    1527-1531

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Ratan Singh rules only four years. After Sanga's death, he begins persecution of Mira Bai. Surajmal Hada and Ratan Singh kill each other while on a hunt at Bundi.

    India:
    1530, Mughals, Humayun.
    52. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana VIKRAMADITYA II

    Reign:
    1531-1536

    Capital:
    Chittor

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Possesses turbulent disposition; discord causes weakens govt. 1533, taking advantage of this Bahadur Shah of Gujarat attacks Mewar; Mar 24, Rajamata Karmavati secures truce. Vikramaditya continues persecution of poetess Mira Bai; finally she flees back to Merta, then goes on extended pilgrimage throughout India. 1534, Bahadur Shah of Gujarat initiates 2nd sack of Chittor; Vikramaditya leads attack party away from fort. Young Udai Singh sent to safety at Bundi. Mar 8, fort's women commit jauhar, fort's warriors ride to their deaths; Bahadur Shah captures Chittor; Apr 25, he retreats to Gujarat when Mewar’s allies march on Chittor. Vikramaditya returns to continue loathsome reign. 1535, insults important elder; confined to palace by nobles. Udai Singh still only an infant; nobles give job of Regent (caretaker ruler) to Banbir, illegitimate and ambitious son of Maharana Sanga’s younger brother Prithvi Raj. 1536, Vikramaditya assassinated by Banbir. Panna Dhai, Udai's nurse substitutes her own son Chandan, for the prince (Banbir slays the son instead); Panna secretly smuggles Udai to safety of Kumbhalgarh. Banbir usurps throne (his reign is not recognised.)

    India:
    1534, Humayun conquers Gujarat
    53. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana UDAI SINGH II

    Reign:
    1537-1572

    Capital:
    Chittor, then Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1537, nobles discover young Udai Singh at Kumbhalgarh and proclaim him rightful ruler. 1540, Udai Singh defeats Banbir at Mavli, returns to Chittor as new Maharana; May 9, birth of Udai's heir Pratap Singh. For some years, the young Maharana Udai Singh leads relatively quiet existence. 1559, First Construction started in Udaipur Palace with Navchowki Mahal in Rai Angan and Saleh Khana on the ground floor with Nika-ki-Chopad on the first floor. 1562, Udai aggravates new Mughal ruler, Akbar by giving shelter to various rulers who have rebelled against Mughals. 1553, builds Moti Mahal at Dewali Talab as temporary palace; Akbar marches on Chittor; Mewar nobles urge Udai Singh to save the family line by taking refuge at Gogunda. 1568, Feb 23, Akbar conquers Chittor (3rd sack); Feb 28, leaves for Delhi. 1559, Udai Singh started construction of new palace on Rana Magri near Lake Pichola, Udaipur; 1572, dies at Gogunda.

    India:
    1542, Sher Shah conquers North India, Emperor Humayun escapes to Persia; Sher Shah introduces new system of revenue administration; Akbar born at Umarkot. 1554, Humayun returns, defeats successor of Sher Shah, re-establishes Mughal dynasty. 1556, Akbar (aged 13) succeeds Humayun as Mughal emperor. 1565, Battle of Talikota, joint forces of successor states of Bahmani sultanate conquers Vijayanagara. 1569, Salim (later Emperor Jahangir) born to Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri.
    54. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana PRATAP SINGH I

    Reign:
    1572-1597

    Capital:
    Mainly Kumbhalgarh

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Pratap Singh determined to repulse the Mughal takeover of Mewar and to retake the heritage capital of Chittor; renounces luxury of Udaipur and lives austere life of guerilla fighter in Aravalli Hills north of Udaipur. Makes Kumbhalgarh new capital; continually harasses Mughal forces and outposts until Akbar decides to sue for peace. 1573, Jun, Man Singh of Amber meets Pratap who insults him and refuses to accept Akbar’s sovereignty. 1576, Jun 18, Pratap’s small guerilla army meets large Imperial force led by Man Singh at Battle of Haldighati. Hopelessly outnumbered, Mewaris fight bravely until Pratap and faithful horse Chetak, both severely wounded, forced to retire. Mughals victorious but fail to conquer Mewar. Pratap's brother, Sakta Singh founds Saktawats. Pratap continues harassment of the Mughals for next 20 years, saving the kingdom from imperial subjugation. 1577, Pratap driven from Kumbhalgarh by Mughals a second time. 1578, retires to Chavand where he dies in January, 1597 without realising his dream of retaking Chittor.

    India:
    1574, Akbar conquers Gujarat.
    55. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana AMAR SINGH I

    Reign:
    1597-1620

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Amar Singh re-establishes Udaipur as Mewar capital. Mewar enjoys peace for the first time in several decades; Amar attends to revitalising domestic matters. 1605, Akbar’s son and successor, Jahangir renews Mughal war against Mewar. 1613, Sep 7, Jahangir sends force led by son Prince Khurram (later Shah Jahan). 1614, again at war and unable to match strength of imperial forces, on the advice of his chieftains Amar Singh finally decides to negotiates peace settlement with Jahangir. 1615, Feb 5, Amar Singh meets Khurram at Gogunda; signs treaty; Mar 17, under terms of treaty, Amar's heir, Prince Karan Singh attends Mughal court in Ajmer where he befriends Khurram. 1616, Amar builds Badi Pol; Amar Mahal. Severely depressed at virtually having betrayed Mewar, Amar Singh retires to Ahar. 1620, he abdicates in favour of Prince Karan; 6 months later he dies (1st Maharana to die in Udaipur).

    India:
    1600, foundation of East India Co. in London. 1602, foundation of Dutch East India Co. 1605, Mughals, Jahangir. 1611, Jahangir relocates Mughal court to Ajmer in an effort to conquer Mewar. 1612, Prince Khurram weds Arjumand (Mumtaz Mahal). 1614, Jahangir advocates peace treaty with Mewar (on Amar Singh's terms). 1615, peace treaty with Mewar; Sir Thomas Roe 1st British ambassador at Mughal court. 1618, birth of Khurram's son Aurangzeb.
    56. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana KARAN SINGH II

    Reign:
    1620-1628

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Often called last independent king of Rajputana. Mewar almost bankrupt because of grandfather Pratap’s prolonged war against Mughals. Karan set about strengthening his capital and kingdom. 1620-28, builds memorial cenotaph for his father at Ahar, inaugurating area as royal family's cremation ground;Manek Chowk, Fodder Store for Elephants, Horses and Bullocks (Below Manek Chowk), Paiga Pol, Suraj Pol, Toran Pol, Dilkushal Mahal, Moti Chowk , Sata Navari Paiga, Ganesh Chowk, Ganesh Deodhi, Pagda-ki-Hathni, Naharon-ka-Darikhana, Sabha Shiromani-ka-Darikhana, Chandra Mahal, Lakhu Gokhada, Karan Mahal, Kanch ki Burj, Chitram Ki Burj, Moti mahal and Bheem Vilas (Part I), Manek Mahal, Dilkush Mahal, Moti Mahal, Manak Mahal, Zanana Mahal, and Mor Chowk (Peacock Courtyard - Maharana Sajjan Singh adds peacock mosaics almost 260 years later), Surya Chopad and Surya Gokhada, Zenana Mahal-Lakshmi Chowk, Khush Mahal Chowk and Nav Ghat. 1622, begins building Jag Mandir. 1623, when Mughal friend, Prince Khurram seeks refuge after rebelling against Jahangir, Karan secures the prince and his family at incomplete Jag Mandir for few months. Four years later, Khurram seizes Mughal throne, taking title Shah Jahan; Mewar’s state of tranquillity continues.

    India:
    1627, Mughals, Shah Jahan.
    57. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana JAGAT SINGH I

    Reign:
    1628-1652

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Also a builder; completes Jag Mandir, begins restorations at Chittor. 1628-1652, Jagat Singh I build Mohan Mandir, Jaleb Chowk, 8 Torans on top of Paiga Pol and Kanwarpada Mahal

    1628, builds Jagdish Temple just north of the City Palace (completed Mar 13, 1652). Dedicated patron of the Arts and preserver of dynasty’s heritage, encourages Mewar school of miniature painting; adds to City Palace. Highly respected by his subjects. 1652, in middle of Mewar’s peaceful renaissance, Jagat Singh dies.

    India:
    1631, death of Mumtaz Mahal; 1632, Shah Jahan begins building Taj Mahal at Agra as her mausoleum (completed 1642). 1636-44, Prince Aurangzeb rules South India as Mughal viceroy. 1646, Shivaji establishes power in region of Pune, Maharashtra, pledges to free Marathas from foreign control.
    58. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana RAJ SINGH I

    Reign:
    1653-1680

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1658, Aurangzeb seizes Mughal throne; soon begins holy war against Mewar. 1659, Raj Singh mounts valiant defence; offers terms for peace treaty. It is not ratified, as Aurangzeb turns his attention to protracted conquests in Deccan. Severe drought in Mewar. 1665, Apr 7, to defeat effect of future droughts, Raj Singh begins construction of Rajsamand Lake. North India’s political scene explodes, gives Mewar a rest from wars with Mughals. 1673, Raj Singh orders Krishna idol brought from Mathura to safety of Mewar; ends up at Nathdwara (Sihar). 1680, Jan 23, Mughal army defeats Raj Singh; Oct 22, death of Raj Singh—possibly poisoned.

    India:
    1655, Prince Aurangzeb raids Golconda in Deccan. 1656, Shivaji extends Maratha kingdom on west coast; many willingly join him. 1658, Mughals, Aurangzeb (Alamgir I); imprisons father Shah Jahan. 1659, Shivaji begins attacking Mughals in bid to rid India of foreign powers. 1664, inauguration of French East India Co. 1669, Aurangzeb begins destroying Hindu temples and shrines. 1670, Shivaji raids Mughal-controlled port of Surat; begins to levy taxes in Mughal territories; organises Maratha govt. on Hindu principles. 1674. Shivaji founds Maratha Dynastic Era; crowns himself ruler; invades Deccan.
    59. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana JAI SINGH

    Reign:
    1680-1698

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1681, Jun 24, Jai Singh and Mughal Prince Muazzam ratify Mughal treaty; despite this, Aurangzeb continues campaign against Mewar with battles continuing over the next decade. Strong resistance from Jai Singh's forces keeps Mewar free of the Muslim yoke where other Rajput states have succumbed. 1687, emulating his father, Jai Singh begins building Jaisamand Lake (completed 1691). In later years, Jai Singh virtually turns his back on responsibilities; Crown Prince Amar Singh rebels against his father but nobles persuade him to retire to Rajnagar until his succession. Jai Singh completely loses interest in life. 1698, records show Jai Singh dies of effects of insanity. Prince Amar returns to ascend throne.

    India:
    1680, death of Maratha leader Shivaji aged 53. 1681, Aurangzeb establishes Aurangabad in Maharashtra as new Mughal capital. 1686-7, Aurangzeb annexes sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda; considered himself ruler of Deccan.
    60. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana AMAR SINGH II

    Reign:
    1698-1710

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Amar Singh II builds Nakkar Khana ki Chatri, Ghadiyal Ki Chatri, Shiv Prasanna-Amar Vilas (Baadi Mahal)
    Although a gallant man, Amar Singh’s 12-year reign is uneventful and ineffectual. Emperor Aurangzeb, now old and weak, retires to Aurangabad; gives up warfare mainly because his Treasury is depleted from zealous wars in South India. With this welcome peace, Mewar painters benefit from serenity and finances to perfect their art.

    India:
    1707, death of Aurangzeb. (Succeeded by series of weak emperors; rapid decline of Mughal Empire.)
  • Concise History of Mewar

    A chronology of Mewar's 76 Rulers and their times (AD ca 569-2001) including some parallel events in India.

    Conflicting dates exist for the reigns of Guhil and his two immediate successors, Bhoj and Mahendra I. Some texts maintain Guhil's reign began as early as 566 AD. The following dates must still be considered approximate.

    61. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana SANGRAM SINGH II

    Reign:
    1710-1734

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1710- 1734, Sangram Singh II builds Tripoliya and Hathi Thaan (Stable for elephant), Hathi ka Aagad, Hathnal ka Darikhana and Hathnal-Ki-Chandani, Hathi-Baithak, Palki Khana, Kacheri Mahal, Dilkhushal Mahal ka Parchana, Vani Vilas and Kishan Vilas Sat Tanka, Shiv Vilas, (Badi Chitrashali), Chowmukha (In-side Lakshmi Chowk The Zenana Mahal) 1711, Builds Tripoliya between Badi Pol and Manek Chowk. Palki Khana, Kacheri Mahal, Dilkhushal Mahal Ka Parchana, Chowmukha in Laxmi Chowk, The Zenana Mahal. 1715, ancient history chronicle Khuman Raso written. 1717-23, builds Shiv Vilas (Badi) Chitrashali, Vani Vilas and Sat Tanka, Sahelion ki Bari. 1718, begins series of raids to retake Mewar territories.

    India:
    1712, Mughals, Jahandar Shah. 1713, Mughals, Farrukhsiyar. 1719, Mughals, Muhammad Shah. 1720, Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I establishes Maratha power in Northern India; raids Delhi. 1724, Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I, viceroy of Deccan quits Delhi, establishes semi-independent state of Hyderabad; other Mughal provinces (Bengal, Oudh) follow.
    62. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana JAGAT SINGH II

    Reign:
    1734-1751

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1734-1751, Jagat Singh II builds Pitam Niwas and Ras Niwas,
    1743-1746, 1736, Maratha Baji Rao I captures Udaipur; exacts ongoing tributes. 1739, Jagat Singh refuses to help Mughals against Persian invader, Nadir Shah. 1743-1746, builds Jag Niwas (now the Lake Palace hotel).

    India:
    1737, Marathas raid Delhi. 1739, Persian ruler Nadir Shah sacks Delhi; steals Mughals' Peacock Throne. 1742, French governor Dupleix exploits feuds among Indian rulers; builds up an Indian army ruled by French; 1746, French admiral La Bourdonnais captures Madras. 1747, Kandahar, Ahmad Shah Durrani, ex-commander of Nadir Shah of Persia, unites a number of warring tribes and founds Afghanistan. 1748, Durrani's 1st invasion of India.
    63. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana PRATAP SINGH II

    Reign:
    1751-1754

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Ineffective ruler, a victim of circumstances beyond his control; pays out vast sums of tribute money to invading Marathas, putting Mewar into debt.

    India:
    1751, Robert Clive captures Arcot.
    64. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana RAJ SINGH II

    Reign:
    1754-1761

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Puts Mewar further into debt. 1755, Mar 9, signs treaty with Marathas; agrees to pay Rs. 15 lacs annually. Adopts uncle Ari Singh who possibly poisons him.

    India:
    1754, Mughals, Alamgir II. 1756, Black Hole of Calcutta leads to British rule in Bengal. 1757, Clive defeats Bengal at Battle of Plassey; installs Mir Jafar. Ahmad Shah Durrani plunders Delhi, Agra, Mathura and Vrindaban; forced to retire when cholera strikes his men. 1758, Marathas occupy Punjab. 1759, Mughals, Shah Alam. 1760, British defeat French at Battle of Wandiwash.
    65. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana ARI SINGH II

    Reign:
    1761-1773

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1761-1773, Builds Bansi Ghat, Pipli Ghat and Arsi Vilas a small Island Palace in Lake Pichola. 1764, famine in Mewar. 1769, Jul 22, Treaty signed between Ari Singh and Maratha, Mahadji Rao Sindia. Pretender to throne, Kunwar Ratan Singh, backed by Mewar nobles, tries to overthrow govt., Battle of Ujjain. 1773, during break in Mewar's civil war, Ari Singh travels to Bundi to celebrate spring festival; assassinated by Prince Ajit Singh of Bundi.

    India:
    1761, 2nd Battle of Panipat, Ahmed Shah Durrani defeats Marathas who withdraw south. Haider Ali usurps Mysore throne. 1764, Battle of Baxar, British and their Indian troops defeat joint forces of Mughal ruler and of nawabs of Bengal and Oudh. 1765, Clive returns to India as governor of Bengal. 1769, Haider Ali conquers large parts of South India. 1770, Bengal famine, one-third of population dies. 1772, British East India Co. replaced by British Govt. of India. 1770, Marathas annex Rajput Ajmer; take Agra.
    66. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana HAMIR SINGH II

    Reign:
    1773-1778

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Ascends throne aged 13; Diwan Amar Chand hires Sind mercenaries to counter attacks by Marathas; Sinds take over Udiapur; Hamir brings in Maratha leader, Holkar to get rid of Sinds. 1778, dies, dispirited, at age 18 with Mewar demoralised and bankrupt.

    India:
    1773, Regulation Act, Warren Hastings becomes governor general. 1775, 1st Anglo-Indian War; Hastings sends expedition from Calcutta to Surat to break coalition of Marathas, Hyder Ali, and Hyderabad.
    67. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana BHEEM SINGH

    Reign:
    1778-1828

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Ascends throne at age 10. 1788, Jan 26, Battle of Harkyakhal between Udaipur and Marathas—Udaipur defeated. 1789, Oct 24, Arjun Singh of Kurabar murders Mewar Prime Minister Som Chand Gandhi. 1791, Aug 22, Bheem Singh of Salumbar occupies Chittor. Nov 17, Sindhia helps Maharana Bheem Singh expel Salumbar Bheem Singh from Chittor. 1792, Maharana Bheem Singh occupies Kumbhalgarh. 1794, Maharana attacks Banswara. 1796, Capt. Tod's 1st visit to Mewar; meets Bheem Singh. 1810, tragedy of Bheem Singh's daughter, Princess Krishna Kumari forced to commit suicide to prevent war with Marwar and Jaipur. 1813, Mewar looted by Amir Khan. After the 1818 Treaty signed with The East India Co, the external administration of Mewar was taken over by British, with the appointment of Capt. James Tod (Later LT. Col.) as Political Agent, although Mewar's debt to British begins.
    ,
    In 1778-1828, He Built Nagina Baadi Darikhana, Madan Vilas, Bheem Vilas (Part II), Suk Niwas (Y. 1801), Naya Mahal or Bheem Niwas (Y. 1825), Parvati Vilas (Y. 1825).

    India:
    1782, British obtain Bombay from Marathas; Treaty of Salbai. Death of Haider Ali; son Tipu Sultan continues to fight British. 1784, Second Regulation Act, stronger position of governor general, est. of Board of Control in London. 1785, impeachment of Hastings. His successor, Lord Cornwallis defeats Tipu Sultan, annexes a major part of his territory. Maratha Wars. 1790, Marathas defeat Jaipur and Jodhpur at Merta. 1799, final defeat and death of Tipu Sultan. 1803, Nawab of Oudh cedes southern and western districts to British. 1817, British take over administrative control of Malwa. 1818, final British victory over Marathas; Princely States of Rajputana sign treaty ceding administration to British.
    68. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana JAWAN SINGH

    Reign:
    1828-1838

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1828-1830, Builds Ghoomat Mandir (Near Kacheri Mahal)

    1834, Jal Niwas: Facing Lake Pichola

    1828-1830, Mukut Mandir and Chhoti Chitrashali

    (Col. James Tod publishes Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan in London.) Mewar’s debt to British grows. Jawan adopts cousin Sardar Singh who succeeds him.

    India:
    1829, British ban sati.
    69. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana SARDAR SINGH

    Reign:
    1838-1842

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Rules for 4 undistinguished years. Intrigues at court grow, as does British debt. Adopts younger brother Swaroop Singh who succeeds him.

    India:
    1839, British begin building Grand Trunk Road.
    70. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana SWAROOP SINGH

    Reign:
    1842-1861

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1842-1861, Builds Hawa Mahal (On the top of Tripoliya), Surya Prakash, Swarup Vilas, Khush Mahal: (Chief Court of Mewar), Chhota Darikhana, Swarup Niwas, Moti Mahal (Now in MMPS Area)

    1855 Akhada Ka Mahal and Akhada Ghat, Neemdi Wala Mahal, Sharbati Vilas & Brij Vilas

    1857, Mewar army helps repulse mutiny at Neemuch; Swaroop Singh gives refuge to British women and children. Builds Govardhan Vilas; replaces dome of Chittor's Victory Tower destroyed by lightning. Dies at Govardhan Vilas, allegedly poisoned by Kunwar Shardul Singh. 1861, Aug 15, Sati banned in Mewar.

    India:
    1857, ‘Indian Mutiny’; 1858, East India Co. dissolved; country comes under control of British Govt. of India.
  • Concise History of Mewar

    A chronology of Mewar's 76 Rulers and their times (AD ca 569-2001) including some parallel events in India.

    Conflicting dates exist for the reigns of Guhil and his two immediate successors, Bhoj and Mahendra I. Some texts maintain Guhil's reign began as early as 566 AD. The following dates must still be considered approximate.

    71. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana SHAMBHU SINGH

    Reign:
    1861-1874

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1861-1874, Builds Shambhu Niwas (1865), Kamal Pol (Opposite ADC’s Room), Basant Chowk (Fountain area of Shambhu Niwas), Chandra Chowk (1865-66)

    1863, Jun, 1st Govt. library/school in Mewar, Shambhu Ratna Pathsala opens behind Jagdish Temple. 1865, English introduced into Mewar schools. 1866, Oct 19, 1st girls’ school opens in Udaipur. 1867, Jun 26, 19-gun salutes for Udaipur sanctioned by British. 1870, Mint at Salumbar closes. Adopts Sajjan Singh who succeeds him.

    India:
    1861, Establishment of Imperial Legislative Council with Indian members nominated by the viceroy. 1865, birth of Mahatama Gandhi.
    72. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana SAJJAN SINGH

    Reign:
    1874-1884

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1876, Dec 28, Delhi Durbar, British present Mewar with standard on which Surya the Sun God replaces monkey god Hanuman. Sajjan Singh given full rights to govern Mewar. 1877, Jan 1, Sajjan Singh attends Delhi Durbar. High Court established. 1878, Land settlement introduced. 1879, publication of paper Sajjan Kirti Sudhakar begins. 1880, Aug 20, Mahendras Sabha established. 1881, British award Sajjan Singh the Star of India; Bhils revolt against census. 1882, Sajjan Singh honours Hindi poet laureate Harish Chandra; invites classical singer Dagar and Rishi Dayanand to Court at Udaipur. Commissions Shayamal Das to write Vir Vinod (History of Mewar). Builds Khasi Odi Hunting Lodge; Sajjan Niwas Gardens and Sajjan Vani Vilas Library; repairs Padmini's Palace, Chittor; builds Sajjangarh (Monsoon Palace). Adopts Fateh Singh who succeeds him.

    India:
    1877, Queen Victoria, Empress of India. 1880, British defeated in Afghan war; British P.M. Gladstone sends Lord Ripon to India as viceroy.
    73. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana FATEH SINGH

    Reign:
    1884-1930

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    Remains aloof from British administrators. Builds Badal Mahal, Kumbhalgarh; 1889, Fateh Sagar embankment; 1890, Victoria Hall in Sajjan Niwas Gardens. 1884, natural son, Bhupal Singh born. 1895, Feb 22, 1st telegraph office opens in Udaipur. 1897, Udaipur Railway officially established. 1903, Fateh Singh goes to Delhi but does not attend Durbar. Builds Durbar Hall, Fateh Prakash Palace; extends Shambhu Nivas and completes Shiv Nivas palaces; Fateh Prakash Mahal, Chittor. 1909, son Bhupal Singh contracts TB and crippling spinal disorder. 1921, British curtail Maharana's power. Nov, British give Crown Prince Bhupal Singh some administrative powers.

    India:
    1885, 1st National Congress meets in Bombay. 1892, reform of Legislative Councils. 1905, partition of Bengal; national agitation, boycott of British goods. 1906, foundation of Muslim League. 1907, split of National Congress into "Moderates" and "Extremists". 1909, Morley-Minto reform; separate electorates for Muslims. 1916, Lakhnau Pact between National Congress and Muslim League. 1918, split of National Congress; National Liberation Federation established. 1919, Rowlatt Acts and Gandhi's Rowlatt satyagraha. 1920, Montagu-Chelmsford reform. 1920-22, Gandhi's non-cooperation campaign; agitation of Indian Muslims. 1929, Lord Irwin's declaration of "Dominion status"; Congress dissatisfied.
    74. Ruler & Title:
    Maharana BHUPAL SINGH

    Reign:
    1930-1955

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1933, Archaeological Museum opens. 1939, adopts Bhagwat Singh who marries Princess Sushila Kunwarji of Bikaner. 1942, founds Municipal Board of Udaipur. 1944, builds General Hospital; opens some items of Crystal for public display. 1947, with Indian Independence 1st ruler to join Indian Union. 1948, Apr 18, Udaipur joins Rajasthan Union of States, opened by Nehru. 1949, former Princely States merged as Rajasthan.

    India:
    Gandhi's "salt march", civil disobedience. 1930-31, Great Depression. 1932, Gandhi-Ambedhar Pact, separate electorates for Untouchables. 1934, elections to Central Legislative Assembly; Congress wins seats. 1935, Govt. of India Act. 1936, elections, Congress wins majority in 7 provinces. 1940, Lahore ("Pakistan") Resolution; Jinnah’s "Two Nations" theory. 1942, Cripps Mission and "Quit India" resolution. 1946, elections, Muslim League successful; interim govt.; Nehru prime minister. 1947, Aug 15, Indian Independence and partition; Kashmir conflict begins. 1948, Mahatma Gandhi assassinated. 1950, Republic of India inaugurated: Nehru prime minister. 1952, 1st general election; Congress wins.
    75. Ruler & Title:
    (Maharana) BHAGWAT SINGH MEWAR

    Reign:
    1955-1984

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    1956, establishes HRH Group to convert palaces into luxury hotels. 1969, Indian Govt. deletes Privy Purse. 1971, Lake Palace leased to Taj Group. 1974, opens Mewar Public School. 1975, converts Sheel Nickunj Kothi into Shikarbadi; publishes Trials and Triumphs of the Mewar Kingdom. 1978, adds 2nd storey to Shiv Nivas. Established Maharana of Mewar Charitable Foundation in 1969. 1980, inaugurates Maharana Mewar Foundation Awards. 1983, Mahendra Singh legally severs himself from family; younger son Arvind Singh appointed Managing Trustee of family's businesses. 1984, registers "Maharana" as a legally constituted name.

    India:
    1957, 2nd general election; Congress wins. 1959, Dalai Lama flees to India; confrontation between China and India. 1960, Bombay divided state between Gujarat and Maharashtra. 1961, Goa liberated. 1962, 3rd general election, Congress wins; border wars with China. 1964, death of Nehru, succeeded by Shastri. 1965, Pakistan conflict over Rann of Kutch; Pakistan attacks Kashmir. 1966, death of Shastri, succeeded by Indira Gandhi; devaluation of rupee. 1967, 4th general election, Congress retains majority but loses several states. 1971, elections only in Delhi, Indira Gandhi's Congress wins; Indo-Soviet Friendship Treaty; Indian army helps to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan. 1972, Privy Purse abolished. 1974, strike of railway workers; nuclear device tested underground. 1977, Indira Gandhi defeated; Moraji Desai prime minister; formation of Janata Party. 1978, conflicts in Janata Party; Charan Singh leads caretaker govt. 1980, Indira Gandhi wins elections. 1984, Indian army action in Amritsar's Golden Temple; Sikh rebel leader Bhindranwale killed. Indira Gandhi assassinated.
    76. Ruler & Title:
    SHRIJI ARVIND SINGH MEWAR

    Reign:
    1984-

    Capital:
    Udaipur

    Family:
    Sisodia
    Mewar:
    HRH Group under Arvind Singh purchasing palaces in Rajasthan and converting them into 5-star heritage hotels. 1985, birth of son and heir Lakshyaraj. Started first Solar Boat in 1999, now at Gajner, 14 Prototypes of Solar vehicles were developed in house between 1999-2004. 2000, renovates Badipal (The Promenade) and Zanana Mahal; opens Mewar Special Library; releases 1st CD in Mewar Music Collection; launches book Mewar-the World's Longest Serving Dynasty; 2001, commissions The Mewar Encyclopaedia. 2005 The Mewar Sound and Light Show started both in Hindi and English. 2009 Photography Gallery opened in Bhagwat Prakash, The Zenana Mahal. 2013 Opened Silver Gallery in Amar Mahal and Music Gallery in first floor, south side of the Zenana Mahal and Scultpture Gallery shifted to first floor east wing of the Zenana Mahal. 2014 Curtain Raiser Textile and Costume Gallery – Mewar Regalia opened in ground floor south side of the Zenana Mahal.

    India:
    Change in economic policy; tax cuts, private investment stimulated; scientific and technological progress emphasised; new approach to federalism; toleration of non-Congress govts. in some states.
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